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Memory

Types of Memory Use

Recall: the ability to capture and bring forth ideas (without cues) that you have been previously exposed to.
Recognition: the ability to capture and bring forth ideas (with cues) to which you have previously exposed.

Memory Systems

Short-term memory: Limited information (4±1) held for a matter of seconds
Working memory: Limited information (7±2) manipulated/chunked for a matter of minutes
Long-term memory: Unlimited information available for recall indefinitely, subject to decay

Memorization Strategies

Rehearsal: The act of recitation may have the single greatest impact of solidifying memory components because it refreshes connections we make due to the amount of exposure to the material
Chunking: Organizing information in small "chunks" for better long-term storage and recall
Association: Making connections between information to be memorized and other ideas:

  1. Value: associating the importance of the information to our lives (i.e., good/bad words)
  2. Purpose: associating the information with a clear purpose or motivation to remember it
  3. Relationship: associating the information with memories or experience with it
  4. Mnemonics (Real or Artificial): associating information with related words, phrases, or images

    • Visual: connection to images whose names sound like the information to be memorized
    • Verbal: connection to words whose names sound like the information to be memorized
    • Connective: connection to words whose meaning is similar to the information to be memorized
  5. Systematic Mnemonic Devices: associating information to be memorized with systems that are chronological or sequenced

    • Peg Systems: associating information with pre-defined, numbered lists of words
    • Loci Systems: associating information with images from a familiar location arranged in chronological sequence
    • Storytelling: associating information with different plot elements from a familiar story
    • Matching/Pairing: associating information with its real-world components in an intentional sequence
  6. Random: associating information to random, outrageous, sensory, and novel images or phrases